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At the end the trained network was tested by the values of a picture and determines the design, or how to visualize the converted picture. Atanassov, K. Particularly, they are inspired by the behaviour of neurons and the electrical signals they convey between input such as from the eyes or nerve endings in the hand , processing, and output from the brain such as reacting to light, touch, or heat. The way neurons semantically communicate is an area of ongoing research.
- Issue:Generalized net model of forest fire detection with ART2 neural network.
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Some artificial neural networks are adaptive systems and are used for example to model populations and environments, which constantly change. Neural networks can be hardware- neurons are represented by physical components or software-based computer models , and can use a variety of topologies and learning algorithms. The feedforward neural network was the first and simplest type. Feedforward networks can be constructed with various types of units, such as binary McCulloch—Pitts neurons , the simplest of which is the perceptron.
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Continuous neurons, frequently with sigmoidal activation, are used in the context of backpropagation. The node activation functions are Kolmogorov —Gabor polynomials that permit additions and multiplications. It used a deep multilayer perceptron with eight layers. Useless items are detected using a validation set, and pruned through regularization. The size and depth of the resulting network depends on the task.
An autoencoder, autoassociator or Diabolo network  : 19 is similar to the multilayer perceptron MLP — with an input layer, an output layer and one or more hidden layers connecting them. However, the output layer has the same number of units as the input layer. Its purpose is to reconstruct its own inputs instead of emitting a target value.
Therefore, autoencoders are unsupervised learning models. An autoencoder is used for unsupervised learning of efficient codings ,   typically for the purpose of dimensionality reduction and for learning generative models of data. A probabilistic neural network PNN is a four-layer feedforward neural network. In the PNN algorithm, the parent probability distribution function PDF of each class is approximated by a Parzen window and a non-parametric function. A time delay neural network TDNN is a feedforward architecture for sequential data that recognizes features independent of sequence position.
In order to achieve time-shift invariance, delays are added to the input so that multiple data points points in time are analyzed together.
It usually forms part of a larger pattern recognition system. It has been implemented using a perceptron network whose connection weights were trained with back propagation supervised learning. A convolutional neural network CNN, or ConvNet or shift invariant or space invariant is a class of deep network, composed of one or more convolutional layers with fully connected layers matching those in typical ANNs on top. In particular, max-pooling. Its unit connectivity pattern is inspired by the organization of the visual cortex. Units respond to stimuli in a restricted region of space known as the receptive field.
Receptive fields partially overlap, over-covering the entire visual field. Unit response can be approximated mathematically by a convolution operation. CNNs are suitable for processing visual and other two-dimensional data.diaboninouna.tk
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They can be trained with standard backpropagation. CNNs are easier to train than other regular, deep, feed-forward neural networks and have many fewer parameters to estimate. Capsule Neural Networks CapsNet add structures called capsules to a CNN and reuse output from several capsules to form more stable with respect to various perturbations representations.
Examples of applications in computer vision include DeepDream  and robot navigation. A deep stacking network DSN  deep convex network is based on a hierarchy of blocks of simplified neural network modules. It was introduced in by Deng and Dong. Each block consists of a simplified multi-layer perceptron MLP with a single hidden layer. The hidden layer h has logistic sigmoidal units , and the output layer has linear units. Connections between these layers are represented by weight matrix U; input-to-hidden-layer connections have weight matrix W.
Target vectors t form the columns of matrix T , and the input data vectors x form the columns of matrix X. Modules are trained in order, so lower-layer weights W are known at each stage. The function performs the element-wise logistic sigmoid operation. Each block estimates the same final label class y , and its estimate is concatenated with original input X to form the expanded input for the next block.
Thus, the input to the first block contains the original data only, while downstream blocks' input adds the output of preceding blocks. Then learning the upper-layer weight matrix U given other weights in the network can be formulated as a convex optimization problem:. Unlike other deep architectures, such as DBNs, the goal is not to discover the transformed feature representation. The structure of the hierarchy of this kind of architecture makes parallel learning straightforward, as a batch-mode optimization problem.
This architecture is a DSN extension. It offers two important improvements: it uses higher-order information from covariance statistics, and it transforms the non-convex problem of a lower-layer to a convex sub-problem of an upper-layer.
Issue:Generalized net model of forest fire detection with ART2 neural network
While parallelization and scalability are not considered seriously in conventional DNNs ,    all learning for DSN s and TDSN s is done in batch mode, to allow parallelization. The basic architecture is suitable for diverse tasks such as classification and regression.
Regulatory feedback networks started as a model to explain brain phenomena found during recognition including network-wide bursting and difficulty with similarity found universally in sensory recognition. A mechanism to perform optimization during recognition is created using inhibitory feedback connections back to the same inputs that activate them.
This reduces requirements during learning and allows learning and updating to be easier while still being able to perform complex recognition. Radial basis functions are functions that have a distance criterion with respect to a center. Radial basis functions have been applied as a replacement for the sigmoidal hidden layer transfer characteristic in multi-layer perceptrons. The RBF chosen is usually a Gaussian. In regression problems the output layer is a linear combination of hidden layer values representing mean predicted output.
The interpretation of this output layer value is the same as a regression model in statistics. In classification problems the output layer is typically a sigmoid function of a linear combination of hidden layer values, representing a posterior probability. Performance in both cases is often improved by shrinkage techniques, known as ridge regression in classical statistics.
This corresponds to a prior belief in small parameter values and therefore smooth output functions in a Bayesian framework. RBF networks have the advantage of avoiding local minima in the same way as multi-layer perceptrons. This is because the only parameters that are adjusted in the learning process are the linear mapping from hidden layer to output layer. Linearity ensures that the error surface is quadratic and therefore has a single easily found minimum.
In regression problems this can be found in one matrix operation. In classification problems the fixed non-linearity introduced by the sigmoid output function is most efficiently dealt with using iteratively re-weighted least squares. RBF networks have the disadvantage of requiring good coverage of the input space by radial basis functions.