Guide Step-By-Step Basic Statistics Using SAS. Exercises

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If you are stuck in anything related to SAS whether it is installation related issue or clarity in any of SAS functions and procedures, they have both online and offline community to support you. Stable Software more important than cost of software license : All the functions and procedures of previous software version are supported in new SAS versions.

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Statistical Programming in SAS®

Set up your account by registering yourself You can access it from anywhere as it is run on cloud Internet Required Don't go by software name 'Academics'. It is available for everyone not just college students. Clearly, to reject the null hypothesis, the high goal-difficulty group Group 1 must display a mean that is greater than the low goal-difficulty group Group 2. If Group 2 displays the higher mean, then you might not reject the null hypothesis, no matter how great that difference might be. This presents a problem because the finding that Group 2 scored higher than Group 1 may be of great interest to other researchers particularly because it is not what many would have expected.

This is why, in many situations, nondirectional tests are preferred over directional tests. Summary In summary, research projects often begin with a statement of a research hypothesis. This allows you to develop a specific, testable statistical null hypothesis and an alternative hypothesis. The analysis of your data will lead you to one of two results:.

If the results are significant, you can reject the null hypothesis and tentatively accept the alternative hypothesis. Assuming the means are in the predicted direction, this type of result provides some support for your initial research hypothesis. If the results are nonsignificant, you fail to reject the null hypothesis. This type of result fails to provide support for your initial research hypothesis.

Data, Variables, Values, and Observations Defining the Instrument, Gathering Data, Analyzing Data, and Drawing Conclusions With the null hypothesis stated, you can now test it by conducting a study in which you gather and analyze relevant data. For example, you can choose to test your hypothesis by conducting a simple correlational study: You identify a group of agents and determine.

Different types of instruments can be used to obtain different types of data. For example, you might use a questionnaire to assess goal difficulty, but rely on company records for measures of insurance sold. Once the data are gathered, each agent will have one score indicating the difficulty of his or her goals, and a second score indicating the amount of insurance he or she has sold.

You would then analyze the data to see if the agents with the more difficult goals did, in fact, sell more insurance. If so, the study results would lend some support to your research hypothesis; if not, the results would fail to provide support. In either case, you would be.

Step-by-step Basic Statistics Using SAS® - Larry Hatcher - Buku Google

The information learned in the current study might stimulate new questions or new hypotheses for subsequent studies, and the cycle would repeat. For example, if you obtained support for your hypothesis with a correlational study, you might choose to follow it up with a study using a different research method, perhaps an experimental study the difference between these methods will be described below. Over time, a body of research evidence would accumulate, and researchers would be able to review this body to draw general conclusions about the determinants of insurance sales.

Variables, Values, and Observations Definitions. When discussing data, one often speaks in terms of variables, values, and observations. Further complicating matters is the fact that researchers make distinctions between different types of variables such as quantitative variables versus classification variables. This section discusses the distinctions between these terms. For the type of research discussed in this book, a variable refers to some specific characteristic of a subject that can assume one or more different values.

For the subjects in the study described above, amount of insurance sold is an example of a variable: Some subjects had sold a large amount of insurance, and others had sold less. A different variable was goal difficulty: Some subjects had more difficult goals, while others had less difficult goals. Subject age was a third variable, while subject sex male versus female was yet another. A value, on the other hand, refers to either a particular subject's relative standing on a quantitative variable, or a subject's classification within a classification variable.

Subject age is another quantitative variable that can assume a wide variety of values. In the sample studied, these values ranged from a low of 22 years to a high of 64 years. Quantitative variables. You can see that, in both of these examples, a particular value is a type of score that indicates where the subject stands on the variable. The word score is an appropriate substitute for the word value in these cases because both amount of insurance sold and age are quantitative variables: variables that represent the quantity, or amount, of the construct that is being assessed.

With quantitative variables, numbers typically serve as values. Classification variables. A different type of variable is a classification variable or, alternatively, qualitative variable or categorical variable.

With classification variables, different values represent different groups to which the subject might belong. Sex is a good example of a classification variable, as it might assume only one of two values: A particular subject is classified as being either a male or a female. Political Party is an example of a classification variable that can assume a larger number of. These variables are classification variables and not quantitative variables because the values only represent membership in a singular, specific group membership that cannot be represented meaningfully with a numeric value.

Observational units. In discussing data, researchers often make references to observational units, that can be defined as the individual subjects or other objects that serve as the source of the data. Within the behavioral sciences and education, an individual person usually serves as the observational unit under study although it is also possible to use some other entity, such as an individual school or organization, as the observational unit. In this text, the individual person is used as the observational unit in most examples.

SAS Tutorial for Beginners : How to Learn SAS - The Complete SAS Tutorial

Researchers will often refer to the number of observations or number of cases included in their data set, and this typically refers to the number of subjects who were studied. An example. For a more concrete illustration of the concepts discussed so far, consider the data set displayed in Table 2. The preceding table reports information regarding six research subjects: Bob, Walt, Jane, Susan, Jim, and Mack; therefore, we would say that the data set includes six observations. Information about a particular observation subject is displayed as a row running horizontally from left to right across the table.

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The first column of the data set running vertically from top to bottom is headed Observation, and it simply provides an observation number for each subject. The second column headed Name provides a name for each subject. The remaining five columns report information about the five research variables that are being studied. The column headed Sex reports subject sex, which might assume one of two values: M for male and F for female. The column headed Age reports the subject's age in years.

The Goal Difficulty Scores column reports the subject's score on a fictitious goal difficulty scale.

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In this example, each participant has a score on a item questionnaire about the difficulty of his or her work goals. Depending on how they respond to the questionnaire, subjects receive a score ranging from a low of zero meaning that the subject views the work goals as extremely easy to a high of meaning that the goals are viewed as extremely difficult. The column headed Overall Ranking, shows how the subjects were ranked by their supervisor according to their overall effectiveness as agents.

A rank of 1 represents the most effective agent, and a rank of 6 represents the least effective. The column headed Sales reveals the amount of insurance sold by each agent in dollars during the most recent year. Table 2.

One of the variables was a classification variable sex , while the remainder were quantitative variables. The numbers or letters that appear within a particular column represent some of the values that could be assumed by that variable. Classifying Variables According to Their Scales of Measurement Introduction One of the most important schemes for classifying a variable involves its scale of measurement. Researchers generally discuss four different scales of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio. Before analyzing a data set, it is important to determine which scales of measurement were used because certain types of statistical procedures require specific scales of measurement. For example, a one-way analysis of variance generally requires that the dependent variable be an interval-level or ratio-level variable; the chi-square test of independence allows you to analyze nominal-level variables; other statistics make other assumptions about the scale of measurement used with the variables that are being studied.

Nominal Scales A nominal scale is a classification system that places people, objects, or other entities into mutually exclusive categories.